• Canoas amarradas a un pantalán en un pantano antes de realizar un Evento de Team Building
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According to Clark (1994) it is possible to classify existing approaches to Team building as emanating from one of the following orientations depicted in Table 3.1:
Approaches based on a particular model of team effectiveness.    This type goes “accounts for a great majority of the available literature” Clark (1994 p.29).                                       E.g.: John Adair whose landmark work Adair (1986) Effective Team building
Approaches based on a particular methodology.     E.g. :Outward Bound
Approaches based on a particular model of team effectiveness           and the use of a particular methodology.    E.g.: Dr R. Meredith Belbin whose popular approach to Team building was originally developed in his landmark work Belbin (1981) Management Teams. Why they succeed or fail.
“All sorts approach”     This approach “probably accounts for the vast majority of in-house Team building” Clark (1994 p.29). 

Table E.1 Approaches to Team building
 Clark (1994 pp.29-43)
It would not have been viable and/ or manageable for the scarce resources of this study to deal with every single existing approach to Team building. This research has examined instead the approaches and authors perceived to be central for Clark (1994) and for this research. Such approaches are shown as example guide in figure 3.1. Each of these approaches will be briefly discussed now in turn.


Dr R. Meredith Belbin’s landmark work Belbin (1981) Management Teams. Why they succeed or fail and Belbin (2002) Team Roles at Work were examined along with John Adair’s landmark work Adair (1986) Effective Team building.
This review certainly showed the applicability of such models in TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as they are described in this thesis. Such applicability is supported and stated further along in this thesis by a number of providers of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS interviewed for this study purposes. However, Belbin’s and Adair’s work are neither essential, nor explicative of TEAM BUILDING EVENTS as described in this study. Hence, for this thesis purposes Belbin’s and Adair’s work have no relevance and cannot be considered as previous research for this study research topic. 


This approach “probably accounts for the vast majority of in-house Team building” Clark (1994 p.29). The use of the generic term “all sorts approach”, argues Clark (1994) is an attempt to distinguish these approaches from those, associated with the work of individuals or organizations such as Belbin, Adair, Outward Bound etc. which often “involve using particular providers or paying for copyright material” (p.29). Furthermore, goes on Clark (1994 p.29) what often underpin these programmes is trainers adapting “some or bits” of other approaches.
“Most trainers and many consultants, do not limit themselves to a particular approach, but develop one that they feel comfortable with. The actual programmes are usually an amalgam of underlying theory, not all of it internally consistent, and a mixture of methodology”
Clark (1995, p.34)


To quote Clark (1994) with regards to the Outdoor Training approach to Team building:
     “There is a large and increasing number of suppliers who, whatever their differences, are united for the use of the outdoors as the method for learning” (p.31)
Clark (1994 pp.31-32) cited Mike Peckham (1993) to describe the outdoor training approach to TEAM BUILDING EVENTS. Outdoor training approaches to Team building may combine in general the use of the outdoors and task solving problems with reviews or the provision of meaningful learning opportunities combined with theory input and reviews (Mike Peckham, 1993 cited in Clark, 1994 pp.31-32).
According to Clark (1994) despite their best efforts, “the team is likely to be seduced by the task and will find it difficult to translate what it has learned so it can be used in the workplace” (p.32). Clark (1994) goes on to suggest the great advantage of the outdoor approach:
“The great advantage of the outdoor approach is the development of team spirit that occurs as a result of the achievement of the tasks. The development of skills at the group level is the greatest potential of the outdoor training approach to Team building”
Clark (1994, p.31)